Spinoza (De Spinoza; Espinoza), Benedict

   Dutch philosopher. He was born in Amsterdam. He had a traditional education, but his heretical views led to his excommunication in 1656. From 1660 he lived away from Amsterdam, earning his living as a lens polisher. His Theologico-Political Treatise initiated modern biblical criticism. In his Ethics he applied Euclidean methods to demon-strate a metaphysical concept of the universe with etical implications.

Dictionary of Jewish Biography. .

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  • Baruch Spinoza — Infobox Philosopher region = Western Philosophy era = 17th century philosophy color = #B0C4DE| image size = 200px image caption = name = Baruch de Spinoza birth = November 24, 1632 (Amsterdam, Netherlands) death = February 21, 1677 (The Hague,… …   Wikipedia

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